General geology deals with the forces which act on the body of the earth and with the processes which contribute to the formation of rocks on a large scale.
Each rock can be assigned to one of the three major rock classes by its specific structure (structure, structure): sedimentites, magmatites and metamorphites. Each rock can be transformed by geological processes into a rock of the other two families (see also: Circulation of rocks). The processes which act on the earth’s surface are called exogenous, which in the earth’s interior are called endogenous.
The exogenous dynamics (also exogenous processes) are generated by forces acting on the earth’s surface such as gravity, solar irradiation and rotation of the earth and leads to the formation of sedimentary rocks. This is done by
Physical erosion of other rocks by wind, water or ice, and mass movements of large amounts of rock, such as rock falls, Chemical weathering, Physical deposition of the crushed material (detritus) in the form of clastic sediments (gravel, sand, clay, etc.) and the subsequent solidification of the loose rocks into rocks (diagenesis)
Chemical precipitation of evaporites (such as inorganic lime, gypsum, salt) andBiogenic formation of sediments (like most limestones or diatomite).
The soil customer treats its own complex area of exogenous processes. Quaternary geology deals with the processes and deposits of the last ice ages in the Quaternary, which characterize a large part of today’s landscape forms in the northern hemisphere.
The endogenous dynamics (also endogenous processes) are based on forces within the earth’s crust, such as stresses, heat development by radioactive decay processes or the magmere of the earth and leads to the formation of metamorphites and magmatites. It begins with the
Increasing the pressure, under the continuing deposition of further sediments on the underlying layers. By draining, compaction and solidification (diagenesis), solid rocks such as sandstone are formed from the loose sediments.
The deformation of rocks and the recrystallization of minerals, with increasing temperature and increasing pressure, is called metamorphosis. At the same time, however, the rock still remains in a fixed state. From magmatic rocks and coarse-grained sediments, ortho and para-gneisses are often produced, and slate from fine sediments.
After all, the melting of the rocks can occur (Anatexis). Glum-liquid magmas then rise again from the mantle of the earth.
When the magmids remain stuck in the earth’s crust and become cold, plutonites, such as granite, form when they reach the earth’s surface, forming volcanoes such as lava or volcanic ash.
The movements that debride the surface rocks into the deep, deform and fold, but at the same time bring the depth rocks back to the surface, as well as the traces that these forces leave in the rocks, such as folding, shearing and shingling, Structural geology.